ملخص الانجليزي 1

The Future Simple Tense

  (A)   Adverbs of time :

          Tomorrow – soon – in the future – today – tonight – next+ time ( week – Monday – September – holiday – morning – month – year – summer … etc) – again – the coming + time ( the coming month – week hours – winter – holiday …etc) – after + time ( after two hours – after a week …etc)

(B) The uses to the future simple tense:

           It is used to describe an action which will happen in the future

                          e.g  :  The Islamic Bank will open a branch in our town next year.(open)

  (c) Formation (Rule/ Structure)                              

         1- Affirmative Form (positive):

            (a) I , we + shall + infinitive verb

                         e.g.: Tomorrow I shall fly to Paris after three weeks. (fly)

           (b) I, we, you , they , plural , he , she , it , singular + will + infinitive verb

                         e.g. : It is expected that the weather will be fine tomorrow. (be)

         2- Negative form :

          (a)   I , we + shall+ not (shan’t) + infinitive verb

                        e.g: We shall not go to London next holiday. (not/go)

          (b) I , we ,you , they , plural , he , she , it , singular , plural + will + not(Wont)  + infinitive verb

                        e.g:

                                1- According to the weather forecast, tomorrow will not be very cold. (not/be)

                                2- I Will not come late again. (come)

                                3- Interrogative form (Question):

                                          (a) Shall + I, we + infinitive………?

                       e.g :  Shall we enter university next year? (enter)

             (b) Will + l , we , you , they , plural , he , she , it , singular , plural + will + infinitive verb…?

                      e.g : Will he travel to London again? (travel)

Present simple

     (A) The uses of the present simple: 

                It is used to describe express :                          
1- Habits:
Examples:
1- We pray five times a day (pray)
2- She usually visits her grandfather every Friday.(visit)
     2- facts and permanent things :
Examples:
1- The river Nile runs through the Sudan and Egypt. (run).
2- The sky is blue. (be).
3- One plus one equals two .(equal)
3- Proverbs and wisdom:
Examples:
1- All that glitters are not gold. (glitter)

2- There is no smoke without fire. (be)
NOTE : uncountable nouns :[ information - equipment -furniture - luggage - baggage]
Example:

1- The equipment of the factories is very expensive.(be)
2- The information we have is not enough. (be)
(B) Adverbs of frequency :

              Usually – sometime – always – often – generally – normally – repeatedly – occasionally – rarely – seldom – daily- scarcely – weekly – monthly – yearly – regularly – frequently – habitually – seasonally – every + time (day , night , week , month , Friday , October , holiday , season , winter………., ) – once +a+ time ( once a+ day ) – twice + a + time (twice a week) – three, five……..+a+ times (three times  a month , five time a day…..) 

   (c)  Formation (Rule/ structure) :

         (1) Affirmative form (positive) 

               (a) He , she , it , singular +V+s or (es)⇒(ch , sh , ss ,o ,x)

                      Vowel+ consonant + y ⇒(study) studies
Examples:
1- one of the men always asks for help (ask)

                       2- She waits for the bus station for half an hour every day. (wait)

            (b) I, we , you, they , plural + infinitive verb

            Examples:

                      1- English people raise their hats when greeting others. (raise)
                      2- We usually drink water every morning. (drink)

          (2) Negative form:

            (a) I, we , you , they , plural + don’t (do + not ) + infinitive verb

           Examples:

                    1- They don’t spend their holidays here. (not/ spend)
2- We usually don’t watch games. (not/watch)
(b) He, she, it, singular + doesn’t (does +not) + infinitive verb

           Examples:

                   1- Ahmed doesn’t play football every day.(not/play)

                   2- Fatima doesn’t drink tea very often.(not/drink)

         (3) Interrogative form (question):

           Example: 
1- Do they revise their lessons every day?(revise)

2- Does Mona cook every day?(cook)
3- How often do you visit your relatives?(visit)
(D) Verb' to be' :
The form of the verb' to be' as a main verb in the present simple tense:
Positive form
Negative form 
Interrogative form 
I +am + complement (adj/ n)

e.g.: I am student.

we, you, they, plural + are + comp.

we are happy

He, she, it, singular

Un countable noun + is + comp.

Hani is a good boy.

I+ am + not + comp

I am not a teacher

We, you, they, plural + are + not (aren’t )+ comp

We are not sad

 He, she, it, singular, Unc n + is + not (isn’t) + comp.

Am + I + comp.?

Am I a teach?

Are + we, you , they , plural + comp…?

Are you student?

Is + he, she, it, singular, Uncn + comp…?

What is the first month of the year?

      (E) Verb to have : (  have / has ) 
The form of the verb' to have' as a main verb the present simple tens:

Positive form 
Negative form 
Interrogative form 
He, she, it, singular + has + comp
Ahmed has a clever face.
He, she, it, singular, does not+ have + comp
- She doesn’t have a time to do this .
Does + he, she, it, singular + have + comp?
Does Sami have a car?
I, we, you, they, plural + have + comp
-  They have a big house.
I, we, you, they, plural + do not + C
We don’t have much time.
Do + I, we, you, they, plural + comp?
-  Do they have tea every day?

       (F) Verb’ to do’:

                 The form of the verb’ to do’ as a main verb in the present simple tense:

Positive form 
Negative form 
Interrogative form 
He, she, it, singular + does + comp
-Tarig does his duty regularly.
He, she, it, singular + doesn’t + comp
Amal doesn’t do her duty regularly.
Does + he, she, it, signaler + do + comp?
Does she do her homework regularly?
I, we, you, they, plural + do + comp
- I usually do my home work every day.
I, we, you, they, plural + don’t + comp
- I don’t do my home work daily.
Do + I, we, you, they, plural + comp?
- Do you do your duty regularly?

The past simple tense

        (A) the uses of the past simple tense :

                It used to describe an action that happened and finished in the past.

            Examples:
                      My friend went shopping a week age . (go )
                      My mother made very nice tea yesterday.(make)
        (B) Adverbs of time :

               Yesterday – time + ago  ( a week age – a month ago ) – in the past – last + time ( Monday – year – December – holiday ) – once – upon time – just now

        (C) Formation ( Rule / Structure )
             (1) Positive form :

                     ALL subject + past form of the verb

           Examples :
                     1- We watched a football match yesterday .(watch)
                     2- Ahmed visited his grandmother last Friday .( visit)

             (2) Negative form :

                      All subjects + did + not + infinitive verb

           Examples:

                    1-  I didn’t travel to Kassala last holiday.( not / travel)

                    2- Ali didn’t write his lessons last week .( not / write )

            (3) Interrogative form ( Question):

           Example:
                    1-  Did you eat fish a year ago ? (eat)
                    2-  Did Fatima clean the house last week ? (clean )

           (D) verb’ to be’:

                         The form of the verb’ to be’ as a main verb in the past simple tense:

Positive form

Negative form

Interrogative form

We , you ,they , plural + were + complement .

I, he , she , it , singular + was + complement .

We , you , they , plural + were + not + complement

I, he , she , it , singular + was + not + complement .

Were + we , you , they , plural + complement ?

I, was + he , she , it , singular + complement?

           Example :

                     1- Last day I was in Bara but tomorrow I will be in Elobied. ( be)

                     2- When we were young ,our parents made us go early to school.(be)

                     3- A year ago people were very pleased . (be )

                     4- A hundred years ago, there was not electricity in Sudan (not / be )

                     5- Last century there were not many private schools in Sudan (not / be )

                     6- Were they busy December ?( be )

                     7- Was he lucky last competition ?( be )

The passive voice    

        1) The present simple tense:  

               O + am, is, are + p.p 

                      1- Gum Arabic is found in kordofan .(be/find)

                      2- TOYOTA  vehicles are manufactured by Japanese.(be/manufacture)

        2) The past simple Tense :

              O+ was . were + p.p

                     1- Some guava trees were planted  by Adam last season. (plant)

                     2- The book was interested to me yesterday.(interest)

       3) The present continuous Tense :

            O + am ,is , are + being + p.p

                    1- All over the world million of trees are being planted by people .(be/plant)

                    2- Anew factory is being setting by the company over there (set) 

       4) The past continuous Tense :

           O + was ,were + being +p.p

                    1- The game was being playing by the boys when the power went out.(play)

                    2- While the lesson were being revising by the students the bell rang .(revise) 

       5) The present perfect Tense :

          O+ has/have +been +p.p

                    1- The home work has just been done by Mona .(do)

                    2- The trees have already been planted by them.(plant)

      6) The past perfect Tense :

           O +had + been +p.p

                      e.g : The difficult question had been solved by the students before the teacher came .(solve)

      7) The future simple tense /modal verbs:

          O + will , shall ,can ,must ,may ,would .should ,could ,might +be + p.p

                     1- Anew branch will be opened . by bank next month. (open)

                     2- Ageing people must be looked  after by the youth .(look after) 

Trees For Life
 
Summary no (1)

  In not more than(35) words summarize the advantages of trees / forests or the importance of trees / forests.
     Forests resources lead to the development and improvements in our life , they supply us with timber, firewood, fruit, nuts, gum Arabic, they are a source of fodder and medicine , create employment brings hard currency and protect the environment .

Trees For Fuel 

Summary no(2) 

  In not more than (25) explain the ways of saving trees,

     We save trees by using fuel-efficient stoves , planting trees which are used for fuel on unused land and replacing the trees we use.  

SUFFIXES

     Suffixes: are the letters which are added to the end of the words to form new words .

          1- Adjectives /Nouns end in(al)

Accident                      

Accidental                     

Origin

Original

Classic          

Classical

Physic

Physical

Commerce

Commercial

Refuse

Refusal

Dentist

Dental

Region

Regional

Deny

Denial

Survive

Survival

Fact

Factual

Finance

Financial

History

Historical

Magic

Magical

Occasion

Occasional

 

 

          2- Adjectives  end in(ous)

Anxiety

Anxious

Courage

Courageous

Mystery

Mysterious

Varity

Various

 

         3- Nouns end in(ity or ty)

Accessible                     

Accessibility               

Cruel

Cruelty

Generous

Generosity

Hospital

Hospitality 

Impure                            

Impurity                     

Minor

Minority

Necessary

Necessity

Poor

Poverty

Punctual

Punctuality

Prosper

Prosperity

Pure

Purity

Rapid

Rapidity

Real

Reality

Scare

Scarcity

Vary

Variety

 

 

        4- Nouns end in(ment)

Advertise

Advertisement

Amaze

Amazement

Appoint

Appointment

Argue

Argument

Assign

Assignment

Astonish

Astonishment

Attach

Attachment

Depart

Department

Engage

Engagement

Enjoy

Enjoyment

Establish

Establishment

Environ

Environment

Judge

Judgment

Manage

Management

Measure

Measurement

Move

Movement

Pay

Payment

Replace

Replacement

Require

Requirement

Settle

Settlement

 

        5- Nouns end in(th)

Deep

Depth

Die

Died

Strong

Strength

Warm

Warmth

Wide

Width

Young

Youth

 

        6- Adjectives end in(d or ed)

Excite

Excited

Exhaust

Exhausted

Injure

Injured

Require

Required

Surprise

Surprised

Talent

Talented

Plant

Planted

 

 

        7- Adjectives end in (ive or tive)

Aggress

Aggressive

Argument

Argumentative

Create

Creative

Detect

Detective

Imagine

Imaginative

Describe

Descriptive

Super

Superlative

 

 

        8- Adjective and Nouns end in (y)

Current

Currency

Fluent

Fluency

Frequent

Frequency

Pregnant

Pregnancy

Proficient

Proficiency

Sufficient

Sufficiency

Cloud

Cloudy

Dust

Dusty

Jealous

Jealousy

Mist

Misty

Mud

Muddy

Risk

Risky

Sand

Sandy

Sun

Sunny

Wind

Windy

 

 

        9- Nouns end in (ation or tion )

Civilize

Civilization

Describe

Description

Determine

Determination

Found

Foundation

Ferment

Fermentation

Examine

Examination

Expect

Expectation

Exploit

Exploitation

Explore

Exploration

Imagine

Imagination

Modernize

Modernization

Observe

Observation

Preserve

Preservation

Privatize

Privatization

organize

organization

Recommend

Recommendation

Reduce

Reduction

Relax

Relaxation

Sense

Sensation

Separate

Separation

 

      10- Nouns end in (ion)

Accommodate

Accommodation

Adopt

Adoption

Collect

Collection

Congratulate

Congratulation

Connect

Connection

Create

Creation

Cultivate

Cultivation

Decorate

Decoration

Delegate

Delegation

Destruct

Destruction

Digest

Digestion

Distribute

Distribution

Excavate

Excavation

Generate

Generation

Graduate

Graduation

Infect

Infection

Migrate

Migration

Pollute

Pollution

Promote

Promotion

Situate

Situation

Suggest

Suggestion

 

 

       11- Nouns end in (dom)

Bore

Boredom

Free

Freedom

King

Kingdom

Wise

Wisdom

 

      12- Nouns end in (ship)

Friend

Friendship

Relation

Relationship

Hard

Hardship

Citizen

Citizenship

Member

Membership

Owner

Ownership

       13- Adjectives end in ( ful )

Grate

Grateful

Joy

Joyful

Right

Rightful

Truth

Truthful

Revenge

Revengeful

Skill

Skillful

Thank

Thankful

 


Prefixes

   Prefixes   : the prefixes are the letters witch are added to the beginning of the words .

        1- im :not →opposite 

Patient

Impatient

Possible

Impossible

Polite

Impolite

Pure

Impure

 

      2- ir :not →opposite

Responsible

Irresponsible

Regular

Irregular

Relevant

Irrelevant

Removable

Irremovable

     3- un :not → opposite 

Able

Unable

A voidable

Unavoidable

Bearable

Unbearable

Beatable

Unbeatable

Changeable

Unchangeable

Clean

Unclean

Clear

Unclear

Comfortable

Uncomfortable

Controlled

Uncontrolled

Conscious

Unconscious

Cover

Uncover

Countable

Uncountable

Dress

Undress

Employment

Unemployment

Friendly

Unfriendly

Happy

Unhappy

Interesting

Uninteresting

Lock

Unlock

common 

Uncommon

Seen

Unseen

Suitable

Unsuitable

Sure

Unsure

Used

Unused

Wrap

Unwrap

 

Out Lines
Chapter(1) Trees

            By the end of this chapter students should be able to:
-use the formations of The Future Simple Tense which is used to describe an action that will happen in the future.
-use the formations of The Present Simple Tense which is used to describe :habits, facts, permanent, proverbs and wisdom.
-use the formations of The Past Simple Tense which is used to describe an action that happened and finished in the past.
-form and use The Passive Voice.
-Read for understanding, know the importance or advantages of forests and trees and why do we should take care of them.
-Learn how to write summary.
-write summary about the importance /advantages of trees or forests.
-Know why is gum Arabic important to the Sudan.
-Know the ways of saving trees and summarize the ways of saving trees .
-form nouns and adjectives using suffixes (endings) such as: ation – tion-ion- ment – ity – th – y – ive – tive – al – d/ed – ous -.
-write composition using notes about the importance of trees .

– form or explore nouns and adjectives using the suffixes : dom- ship- ful-form or
form or explore words using the prefixes: im-ir-un.

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